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At the age of 20, I resigned my commission as a Captain in the French Army in order to focus on mathematics and astronomy.

At the age of 47, I found myself teaching physics at the Berlin Academy as a favorite professor of Frederick the Great....who convinced me to serve in the Prussian Army against Austria...only to be captured and returned to France.

As a member of the Science Academy, I led the Lapland expedition that measured the precise length of a meridian degree....and our results proved that the earth was flattened and not a perfect sphere.

My mathematics discoveries focused on the properties of curves, while also dabbling in cosmology by formulating the principle of least action.

I was a strong advocate of Newton and friend of Euler...yet was despised by Voltaire.

Finally, I was eclectic in that I also made important contributions in the areas of geography, moral philosophy, astronomy, cosmology, and biology (even anticpated the idea of specie mutations).

Answer: Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698 - 1759)