I was born in Tambov, Russia, and graduated from Moscow State University in 1925...and became a mathematics professor there as well.
Historians claim I "revolutionized the theory of probability" when I introduced the use of axioms as a foundation and proof-structure for its fundamental theorems.
I also developed a pair of systems of partial differential equations (i.e. my eponymn) that allow the application of probability to physics, chemistry, and biology.
In 1938, my article "Mathematics" in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia suveyed the historical development of mathematics, but it is better known for its clarification of the concept of an algorithm.
One of my special interests was the mathematical education of young children, which led to the reform of Soviet pedagogy.
Andrei Kolmogorov (1903-1987)