Born in Vienna, Austria, I received my Ph.D. from the University of Vienna, writing a thesis on Fourier series in two variables.
Gradually my mathematical interests shifted from pure mathematics to both probability and the mathematical development of plasticity theory, all while working at the Institute of Applied Mathematics at the University of Berlin.
I applied to teach there as well, but an appointment was delayed due to controversy over the appropriate role of "applied" mathematics within the German mathematical culture.
When Hitler rose to power, I was forced to leave the University and became a mathematics professor at Istanbul University in Turkey.
After five years, I emigrated to the United States at the start of WWII and became a lecturer at Bryn Mawr College....and married the man I had worked for at the University of Berlin (now at Harvard).
Due to my gender, I was unable to gain a position at a prestigious large university, even though some claim I was "one of the finest applied mathematicians of this century."
In addition to developing the equations for plane plastic deformations, I also contributed to the mathematical basis of Mendelian genetics and the foundations of probability theory.
Answer:
Hilda Geiringer von Mises (1893  1973)
