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Born in Saint-Affrique, Aveyron, and the son of a Protestant pastor, I studied at the Collège Sainte-Barbe, the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, and the École Polytechnique.

I excelled at mathematics, winning the concours général, an annual national mathematics competition for University students in France...and after graduation, placed first in the agrégation, a competitive civil service examination leading to the position of professeur agrégé in France.

After completing my thesis on the theory of functions, I served as a lecturer at the University of Lille...where I published 22 research papers in four years.

My second and final academic position was teaching and doing research at the École normale ...for 45 years.

During the Second World War, I was a member of the French Resistance....and awarded a Resistance Medal in 1950.

With René-Louis Baire and Henri Lebesgue, I helped pioneer the development of measure theory and its application to probability theory....I even have a special type of set named after me.

On a lighter side, one of my books on probability included the thought experiment known as "the infinite monkey theorem"...plus I published multiple papers that outlined the concept of games of strategy.

My wife was the daughter of mathematician Paul Émile Appel, and she wrote more than 30 novels under the pseudonym Camille Marbo.

Answer: Émile Borel (1871-1956)