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A Circlet of Math Demons

In 1975, Stephen Lowell published the small pamphlet 154 Demons in Mathematics (J. Weston Walsh) He defined a Math Demon as being a word that was "difficult to spell, more difficult to pronounce, and still more difficult to define.".

He focused on terms confronted by secondary students. Based on his list, do you know the meaning of these terms:

  1. Aliquot Part
  2. Antipodal
  3. Centesimal
  4. Cycloid
  5. Decimation
  6. Dimidiate
  7. Enneahedral
  8. Geodesic Lines
  9. Gnomon
  10. Involution
  11. Mediety
  12. Novemdecillion
  13. Planimetry
  14. Pseudosphere
  15. Quadripartite
  16. Quincunx
  17. Unipartite
  18. Vicenary
It is fun exploring the meaning and the root derivation of these demons. Give it a try!

On a side note, this reminds me of an afternoon spent browsing Webster's New World Student's Dictionary (1996), searching for inadequately defined words (e.g. diagonal and angle). But, I also discovered a very neat word not previously encountered: CIRCLET. It is defined to be a "small circle." Now, my imagination ran wild: How small is small? What is the name for a large circle? Medium circle? etc.