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Brahmagupta (628 A.D.)

A cat sitting on a wall 4 cubits high, saw a rat prowling 8 cubits from the foot of the wall. The rat too perceived the puss and hastened towards its abode at the foot of the wall: but was caught by the cat proceeding diagonally an equal distance. In what point within the 8 cubits was the rat caught?


Source: R. McGinty & J. Van Beynen's "Story Problems--Let's Make Them Just That," SSAM (April 1982)