[Examinations] as a test of the pupil's attainments by some outside authority and in accordance with some outside standard...may be regarded as necessary evils and their influence upon instruction as bad.... In any system in which all or nearly all hinges upon the result of an examination of some outside authority, the examination is a fact, to which the teacher is compelled to bend his teaching, and no amount of theorizing will ever lead him to do otherwise. Fortunately, this extreme form of examination is by no means predominant in the United States.
The Teaching of Mathematics in the
Elementary and Secondary School, 1907